Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2021 July, 254(3)

Superiority of Cystatin C over Creatinine for Early Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

Takashi Yamazoe,1 Shohei Akagawa,1 Ryosuke Matsuno,1 Yuko Akagawa,1 Sohsaku Yamanouchi,1 Taichi Omachi,1 Takahisa Kimata,1 Shoji Tsuji1 and Kazunari Kaneko1

1Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan

The exact incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)/lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is unknown. Furthermore, childhood cancer survivors are at risk of AKI-chronic kidney disease transition. Thus, early diagnosis of AKI is crucial. This study aimed to elucidate the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing chemotherapy for pediatric ALL/LBL and to compare the usefulness of serum cystatin C (CysC)- and creatinine (Cr)-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as diagnostic measures. Data of 16 patients with ALL/LBL treated with a total of 75 courses of chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. CysC- and Cr-based eGFR were measured before and three times per week during therapy. To calculate the eGFR, an equation for Japanese children was used. AKI was diagnosed when eGFR dropped by 25% from the highest eGFR value obtained during the latest 2 weeks since the start of chemotherapy. AKI was graded based on the pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Renal Disease scale. All patients developed AKI during chemotherapy; however, more than 90% of the cases were mild and eventually recovered. No significant differences were found in the incidence of AKI between CysC- and Cr-based eGFR (p = 0.104). The median time to AKI diagnosis was significantly shorter in the CysC-based eGFR than in the Cr-based eGFR (8 vs. 17 days, p < 0.001). In this study, all patients with pediatric ALL/LBL could develop mild AKI during treatment. CysC-based eGFR is a more effective measure than Cr-based eGFR for the early diagnosis of AKI.

Key words —— acute kidney injury; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; chemotherapy; creatinine; cystatin C


Tohoku J. Exp. Med 2021, 254, 163-170.

Correspondence: Kazunari Kaneko, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shin-machi, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1010, Japan.


*These two authors contributed equally to this work.