Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2021 June, 254(2)

Durable Remission of Chemotherapy-Refractory Myeloid Sarcoma by Azacitidine

Haruya Okamoto,1,2 Yuri Kamitsuji,2 Yukiko Komori,2 Nana Sasaki,2 Yasuhiko Tsutsumi,2 Akihiro Miyashita,2 Taku Tsukamoto,1 Shinsuke Mizutani,1 Yuji Shimura,1 Tsutomu Kobayashi,1 Nobuhiko Uoshima2 and Junya Kuroda1

1Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan
2Department of Hematology, Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daini Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan

Myeloid sarcoma is a rare disease entity of extramedullary myeloid neoplasm that can occur both as an initial isolated myeloid sarcoma without leukemic cell invasion in the peripheral blood and bone marrow, and as the secondary lesion of acute and chronic myeloid leukemias, myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Due to its rarity and its frequent emergence as the recurrent lesion after intensive systemic therapy, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the standard treatment has not been established for myeloid sarcoma. In this report, we presented an 84-year-old female patient with isolated myeloid sarcoma which progressed to myelodysplastic syndrome and systemic myeloid sarcoma despite various types of conventional anti-leukemic chemotherapies. However, the patient got a durable partial response by the monotherapy of azacitidine, a hypomethylating agent. She received thirteen courses of azacitidine therapy without progression. We discuss the possibility that hypomethylating agents are the novel effective and feasible therapeutic options for myeloid sarcoma, even in cases refractory to or relapsed after intensive systemic treatment. We also discuss the possible future development of hypomethylating agent-containing combinatory therapeutic strategy for myeloid sarcoma, given its direct anti-leukemic effect and immunomodulatory effect.

Key words —— azacytidine; hypomethylating agents; isolated myeloid sarcoma; myelodysplastic syndrome; myeloid sarcoma

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Tohoku J. Exp. Med 2021, 254, 101-105.

Correspondence: Junya Kuroda, M.D., Ph.D., 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.

e-mail: junkuro@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp