Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2021 April, 253(4)

Unsatisfactory Short-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Infants Who Received Polymyxin B-Immobilized Fiber Column-Direct Hemoperfusion for Septic Shock

Naoto Nishizaki,1 Taiki Shima,1 Akiko Watanabe,1 Kaoru Obinata1 and Toshiaki Shimizu2

1Department of Pediatrics, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan
2Department of Pediatrics, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

Sepsis and septic shock are associated with high mortality and neurodevelopmental impairment in preterm infants. Recently, endotoxin and mediator removal using a polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column for direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) has been used for the management of septic shock even in neonates. Although early withdrawal from shock with PMX-DHP contributes to survival, its effect on neurodevelopment after discharge is unclear. This study aimed to examine short-term neurodevelopmental impairment in preterm infants with septic shock who were treated with PMX-DHP. We retrospectively assessed five infants who received treatment with PMX-DHP (median 25.5 [interquartile range: 24.8-28.3] weeks and 817 [interquartile range: 667-954] g). Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed with the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 at a median 34.5 (interquartile range: 29.5-44.5) months of corrected age after discharge. The short-term neurodevelopmental prognosis of preterm infants treated with PMX-DHP for septic shock was delayed (overall developmental quotient < 70) with an average quotient of 57.3. Furthermore, four (80%) of five patients presented with intraventricular hemorrhage and another four (80%) with periventricular leukomalacia. In conclusion, preterm infants with septic shock treated with PMX-DHP had unsatisfactory short-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Hence, the effect of PMX-DHP in improving neurodevelopmental prognosis even in preterm infants with septic shock should be further evaluated.

Key words —— Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development; neurodevelopmental impairment; polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column-direct hemoperfusion; preterm infants; septic shock

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Tohoku J. Exp. Med 2021, 253, 275-281.

Correspondence: Naoto Nishizaki, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Pediatrics, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, 2-1-1 Tomioka, Urayasu, Chiba 279-0021, Japan.

e-mail: nishizak@juntendo.ac.jp