Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2021 April, 253(4)

Cytokine Profiles Before and After Exchange Transfusions in Severe Late-Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcus Meningitis: A Case Report

Mina Chishiki,1,2 Hayato Go,1,2 Kisei Endo,2 Nahoko Katayama Ueda,1 Hiroki Takehara1 and Yoshiyuki Namai1

1Department of Pediatrics, Ohta Nishinouchi Hospital, Koriyama, Fukushima, Japan
2Department of Pediatrics, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Fukushima, Japan

Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a pathogen that causes severe neonatal infections, resulting in sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Neonatal GBS meningitis has a poor neurological prognosis and a high mortality rate. GBS disease is classified as early- and late-onset if the onset age is 0-6 and 7-89 days after birth, respectively. There is currently no effective preventive strategy against late-onset GBS (LOGBS) disease. Here, we report a case of female infant with LOGBS meningitis who recovered from the septic shock by two exchange transfusions (ExTs) but still experienced severe neurological sequela. She was born at a gestational age of 39 weeks via caesarian section due to oligohydramnios and had fever 11 days after birth. GBS was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood but not in the vaginal or breast-milk cultures of the mother. The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotic administration; however, she suddenly developed pulseless ventricular tachycardia and asystole the next day. Her heart rate was normalized via cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We also performed two ExTs, and she recovered from the septic shock. Cytokine-profile analysis revealed that the serum and CSF levels of various pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were elevated before the ExTs, after which the serum levels of several of these cytokines decreased. Two ExTs were effective in saving the life of the patient but did not improve the neurological prognosis. Given that neonatal GBS meningitis has high fatality and sequela rates; thus, it is necessary to establish a preventive strategy.

Key words —— anti-inflammatory cytokines; cytokine profile; exchange transfusion; late-onset group B streptococcus meningitis; septic shock

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Tohoku J. Exp. Med 2021, 253, 269-273.

Correspondence: Mina Chishiki, M.D., Departments of Pediatrics, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Hikarigaoka 1, Fukushima, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

e-mail: chishiki@fmu.ac.jp