Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2018 December, 246(4)

Risk of Delayed Healing of Tooth Extraction Wounds and Osteonecrosis of the Jaw among Patients Treated with Potential Immunosuppressive Drugs: A Retrospective Cohort Study

MEGUMI HAYASHI,1,2 YOSHINARI MORIMOTO,1,2,3 TAKATOSHI IIDA,1 YOHEI TANAKA1 and SHUNTARO SUGIYAMA1

1Department of Critical Care Medicine and Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
2Special Patient Oral Care Unit, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
3Department of Dentistry, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan

Bone-modifying or antiresorptive agents that target osteoclasts, such as bisphosphonates, are known to cause delayed wound healing and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) following tooth extraction. However, there are no data on whether such adverse events are also caused by drugs that may suppress the immune system, including corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, biological agents, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the incidence of delayed post-extraction wound healing and identify risk factors among patients treated with potential immunosuppressive drugs undergoing tooth extraction. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 101 patients by reviewing their medical records. The underlying diseases of the enrolled patients included dilated cardiomyopathy, hematological malignancy, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The sample comprised 131 cases of tooth extraction among the 101 patients; delayed post-extraction wound healing occurred in 10 patients (12 cases, 9.2%), including ONJ in three patients (3 cases, 2.3%). The surgical tooth extraction performed for impacted teeth or a residual root (P = 0.009), the number of surgical tooth extraction (P = 0.012), decreased lymphocyte counts (P = 0.008), and decreased eosinophil counts (P = 0.009) were significantly related to delayed wound healing. Thus, among patients taking corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, biological agents, and/or DMARDs, there is a risk of delayed wound healing and ONJ. Moreover, the significant risk factors are low lymphocyte counts, low eosinophil counts, and surgical extraction. It is of particular importance to prevent surgical site infection, when the high-risk patients undergo tooth extraction.

Key words —— delayed wound healing; eosinophil; immunosuppression; lymphocyte; surgical tooth extraction

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Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2018, 246, 257-264

Correspondence: Yoshinari Morimoto, D.D.S., Ph.D., Department of Critical Care Medicine and Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, 82 Inaoka-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238-8580, Japan.

e-mail: morimoto@kdu.ac.jp